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Migration Overview

This section provides an overview of key migration data until 2022, including migrant stocks, number of international students, labour migration and remittances.

Last updated on 24 February 2023.


Understanding migration trends helps to anticipate migration choices and to better tailor policy responses in countries of transit and destination as well as in the countries of origin of returning migrants and students.

See "CRISIS MOVEMENTS" for an  overview of current population movements inside and outside Ukraine, including IDPs and refugees. 

Human Trafficking

By Ukrainian Citizenship

Between 2002 and 2021, there were 18,480 identified victims of trafficking with Ukrainian citizenship in the CTDC database (CTDC, 2022). It should be noted that a high number of identified victims in a particular country does not necessarily indicate a higher prevalence of human trafficking in that country, instead it may indicate an effective counter-trafficking response.

The identified victims were mainly exploited in the Russian Federation (38%) and Poland (8%). 54% of the victims of trafficking with Ukrainian citizenship were female. Most victims were in the age group 30-38 years (28%), followed by 39-47 years (16%). Over two thirds of the victims with Ukrainian citizenship were exploited in forced labour; while 30 per cent were sexually exploited (CTDC, 2022b).  

Since these data reflect the number of victims identified by the contributing organizations, these figures may not represent all victims identified within a country or globally. 

CTDC Global Synthetic Data Dashboard

Source: CTDC, 2022. Screenshot taken on 26 April 2022. The interactive dashboard, displaying statistics for victims with Ukrainian citizenship is available at:

By Country of Exploitation

According to data collected by Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC) partners between 2002 and 2021, the most frequent citizenship among victims of trafficking exploited in the Russian Federation and in Poland was Ukrainian. Of the 11,210 trafficking victims identified in Russia, 63% were Ukrainian citizens. Of the 2,460 trafficking victims identified in Poland, 86% were Ukrainian citizens (CTDC, 2022b). 

The high numbers of Ukrainian victims of trafficking in Russia and Poland suggest that these neighbouring countries represent an intraregional trafficking corridor. With more than 7.4 million refugees from Ukraine recorded across Europe between 24 February and 22 September 2022 (UNHCR, 2022) and more likely to flee, there is high potential for Ukrainians to fall victim to human traffickers (IOM, 2022).

CTDC Global Synthetic Data Dashboard 2

Source: CTDC, 2022. Screenshot taken on 26 April 2022. The interactive dashboard, displaying statistics for victims with Ukrainian citizenship is available at:

Migration to and from Ukraine


As of mid-year 2020, 6.1 million migrants from Ukraine resided abroad. While more than 53 per cent of them resided in the Russian Federation, other top destinations included the United States of America (6%), Kazakhstan (5.8%), Germany (4.7%), Poland (4.4%), Italy (4%), Belarus (3.6%), Czechia (2.1%), Israel (2.1%) and Uzbekistan (2%). [1] 


Stock of emigrants  from Ukraine by region,  as of mid-2020


An estimated 5 million migrants lived in Ukraine as of mid-year 2020. Of these, 75.9 per cent and 15.5 per cent were from European and Asian countries respectively.[2] 

[1] UN DESA, 2020. Data extracted on 28 Feb 2022.

[2] Ibid.

Migration from Ukraine to the OECD


With nearly 200,000 Ukrainians migrating to OECD countries in 2020, Ukrainians were the fourth biggest group of new migrants to the OECD. While migration flows from Ukraine to Poland remained at a similar level in 2020 compared to the previous year, there was overall a small decline in outflows from Ukraine to the OECD compared to 2019 (-12%). Inflows to OECD countries from Ukraine increased by more than 40 per cent in 2019 compared to 2017. Source: OECD, 2022

Ukrainian Citizens in the European Union (EU)

By end of 2021, 1.57 million Ukrainian citizens were authorized to stay in the EU with a valid residence permit, and they represented the third biggest group of non-EU citizens in the EU. The three main EU countries where Ukrainian citizens with a valid residence permit resided were Poland, Italy and Czechia.  Source: Eurostat, 2022.

International Students


According to the Ukrainian State Center for International Education (of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine), Ukraine hosted 76,548 international students from 155 countries in 2020. Nearly 24 per cent and 12 per cent of international students in Ukraine were from India and Morocco, respectively.

International students in Ukraine, 2020


An estimated 77,148 international students from Ukraine were hosted around the world in 2019.[1]


International students from Ukraine, 2019

[1] UNESCO, 2021. Data extracted on 28 Feb 2022.


In November 2022 it was projected that remittance inflows to Ukraine would increase in 2022 by 2 per cent compared to the previous year and reach 18.4 billion USD (Ratha et al., 2022). However, according to more recent estimates, remittance flows to Ukraine decreased from 14 billion USD in 2021 to 13 billion USD in 2022 (National Bank of Ukraine, 2023).

As a share of the total remittances received in Ukraine in 2021, the highest shares were sent by Ukrainian migrants in the following countries according to the National Bank of Ukraine:[2]


Remittance inflows to Ukraine in 2021


[2] National Bank Ukraine, 2021.


Labour Martket Intergation of Ukrainian Refugees in the OECD

First evidence from the OECD shows that the labour market integration of Ukrainian refugees has been faster compared to other refugee groups. In a few European OECD countries, the share of the working-age Ukrainian refugee population in employment is already over 40 per cent (including the Netherlands, Lithuania, Estonia, and the United Kingdom), while the share is lower but increasing in other countries. Source: OECD, 2023.

Labour Migration in Ukraine


Data collected by the State Statistics Service of Ukraine in 2012 in collaboration with ILO on the extent of short-term labour migration in Ukraine showed that short-term migrant workers made up 82.7 per cent of all migrant workers, or 2.9 per cent of the population aged 15–70. Women were under-represented among short-term and over-represented among long-term migrant workers, accounting for 29.7 per cent of short-term and 56.6 per cent of long-term migrant workers.  Source: ILO, 2017.

Labour migration from Ukraine

The start of the war in 2014 changed labour migration patterns. While in 2012, Russia was by far the most popular destination for labour migrants from Ukraine (43% of all Ukrainians working abroad), the most popular destination for Ukrainian migrant workers in 2017 was Poland (39%). 57% of labour emigrants stay less than three months abroad though. Source: European Union, 2020.

Sectors of employment

In 2017, only 27% of Ukrainian labour migrants worked in jobs that were in accordance with their qualifications: 30% worked in a different field; and 36% worked in a field not requiring any qualifications. Only 9% worked in professional and technical services; 14% in trade and services; 26% as workers with tools; and 42% in very simple jobs. Source: European Union, 2020.



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Disclaimer: This webpage curates public information and data. The opinions expressed in this webpage are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), nor its Member States and other stakeholders. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the webpage do not imply expression of any opinion or endorsement whatsoever on the part of IOM, its Member States and other stakeholders concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. While the portal section "Ukraine: Migration Statistics, Policy and Humanitarian Responses" has been made possible with funding from the U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, the European Union, the German Federal Foreign Office and the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) Switzerland, the contents on this section do not necessarily reflect their official policy or position.