This section gives an overview of currently available data on people on the move from and inside Ukraine: refugees, Third Country Nationals (TCNs), IDPs, vulnerable groups on the move, and data on missing migrants.
Refugees and Asylum Seekers
Refugees from Ukraine since 24 February 2022, as of 10 May 2022: 5,981,358 (UNHCR, 2022).
As of mid-year 2021, Ukraine hosted less than 5,000 refugees and asylum-seekers.
Globally, there were 53,474 refugees and asylum-seekers – 30,800 refugees and 22,674 asylum-seekers – from Ukraine as of mid-year 2021. While the Russian Federation hosted more than 43 per cent of all Ukrainian refugees, nine OECD countries hosted more than 90 per cent of all Ukrainian asylum-seekers as of mid-year 2021.
Third Country Nationals (TCNs)
An estimated 5 million migrants lived in Ukraine as of mid-year 2020 (UN DESA, 2020), and 76,548 international students from 155 countries in 2020 (Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, n.d.). Since the start of the Russian Federation's military invasion of Ukraine in February, it is estimated that more than 244,000 third country nationals (TCNs) have fled Ukraine (as of 10 May 2022).
Emotional scenes in Quito, Ecuador, as the relatives of nearly 450 people who fled the war in Ukraine were reunited with their loved ones. IOM provided assistance to returnees aboard the flights organized by the government. Photo IOM/ Ramiro Aguilar
As of 9 March, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) had assisted nearly 100 TCNs fleeing the war in Ukraine to return home. On 18 March, IOM reported that the organization had assisted 123 Azeris fleeing Ukraine to return to Azerbaijan.
Source: IOM's YouTube Channel, 2022. Third-Country Nationals fleeing the war in Ukraine assisted to return home.
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)
As of 3 May 2022, there are now an estimated 8 million persons internally displaced within Ukraine (IOM, 2022).
Previous representative assessments of the general population found that there were an estimated
- 7.7 million IDPs within Ukraine as of 17 April 2022 (IOM, 2022a).
- 7.14 million IDPS within Ukraine as of 1 April 2022 (IOM, 2022b).
- 6.48 million IDPs within Ukraine as of 16 March 2022 (IOM, 2022c).
Source: IOM, 2022 (As of 3 May 2022).
734,000 people – most of whom were displaced in 2014 and 2015 following the annexation of Crimea and instability in Donetsk and Luhansk regions – continued to live in internal displacement as of 31 December 2020.  According to the Ministry of Social Policy in Ukraine, the the total number of people living in internal displacement was as high as nearly 1.5 million as of 1 January 2021. In 2020, an additional 2,000 people were newly displaced internally due to disasters.
Deaths during attempted emigration from Ukraine
As of 19 April 2022, IOM’s MISSING MIGRANTS PROJECT has recorded the deaths of 15 emigrants from Ukraine since 24 February 2022. On 27 February, a 64-year-old Ukrainian man died due to cardiac arrest at the Palanca border crossing in Moldova. On 28 February, an Israeli man attempting to reach the Moldova border was fatally shot some 95km south of Kyiv while driving in a convoy. On 5 March, a 61-year-old Ukrainian woman died of a respiratory arrest due to an epileptic seizure while waiting to be admitted into Hungary. On 13 March, an Ukrainian woman died after the bus she was travelling along with other Ukrainian refugees overturned in Italy. In addition to the previous, on 23 March, a 64-year-old Ukrainian woman has died from blood clots due to immobility while traveling at a gas station in Tàrrega, Spain. On 10 Mar, a boat capsized in Kyiv reservoir, Ukraine during an attempt to flee the country, whereas eight drowned: two dead including a 60-year-old Ukrainian woman, and six missing, including her 4-year-old grandson. In addition to the previous incidents, on 6 April a Ukrainian man was found dead in a ravine in Pop Ivan Massif Maramureș region at the Romania-Ukraine border of presumed hypothermia. On 7 April, a Ukrainian woman died at La Fe Hospital in Valencia, Spain from injuries she encountered in a vehicle accident on 28 March after arriving from Ukraine.
Vulnerabilities of people on the move from Ukraine
On 24 February, Ukraine imposed a temporary regulation for the period of martial law restricting male citizens in the age group 18-60 years from leaving the country. This regulation has also had crucial impacts on the arrival of more vulnerable people with special protection needs, such as women, children, unaccompanied minors, elderly, wounded or sick people. Reports suggest that these groups are in urgent need of short-term and long-term protection measures, including combatting human trafficking, towards child protection and emergency medical care and psychosocial support.
Third country nationals trying to leave conflict-affected areas, including migrant workers and students who have been living in Ukraine, have reported that they experienced discrimination, racism, verbal and physical violence (OHCHR, 2022; IOM, 2022). As of 9 March, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) had assisted nearly 100 TCNs fleeing the war in Ukraine to return home. On 18 March, IOM reported that the organization had assisted 123 Azeris fleeing Ukraine to return to Azerbaijan.