Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Über die Indikatoren der Migrationspolitik
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Die Rechte der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension analysieren, inwieweit Migrantinnen und Migranten hinsichtlich des Zugangs zu grundlegenden sozialen Diensten wie Gesundheit, Bildung und soziale Sicherheit den gleichen Status wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger haben. Es beschreibt die Rechte von Migrantinnen und Migranten auf Familienzusammenführung, Arbeit, Aufenthalt und Staatsbürgerschaft. Die Ratifizierung der wichtigsten internationalen Konventionen fällt ebenfalls in diesen Bereich.main.

Ganzer Regierungsansatz
Ganzer Regierungsansatz

Indikatoren in dieser Dimension bewerten die institutionellen, rechtlichen und regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen der Länder im Zusammenhang mit Migrationspolitik. Dimension 2 beinhaltet auch das Vorhandensein von nationalen Migrationsstrategien, die mit Entwicklungspolitik und -ansätzen im Einklang stehen, sowie die institutionelle Transparenz und Kohärenz in Bezug auf Migrationsmanagement. In diesem Bereich wird auch untersucht, inwieweit Regierungen Migrationsdaten erheben und verwenden.

Partnerschaften
Partnerschaften

Diese Dimension konzentriert sich auf die Bemühungen von Ländern, in migrationsbezogenen Fragen mit anderen Staaten und einschlägigen nichstaatlichen Akteuren, einschließlich Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft und des Privatsektors, zusammenzuarbeiten. Kooperation kann zu Verbesserungen der Regierungsführung führen, indem Standards angeglichen und angehoben, der Dialog intensiviert und Strukturen der Bewältigung von Herausforderungen geschaffen werden. 

Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten
Das Wohlergehen der Migrantinnen und Migranten

Diese Dimension umfasst Indikatoren für die Politik der Länder zur Steuerung des sozioökonomischen Wohlergehens von Migrantinnen und Migranten, z.B. die Anerkennung der Bildungs- und Berufsqualifikationen von Migrantinnen und Migranten, Bestimmungen zur Regelung der Studentenmigration und das Bestehen bilateraler Arbeitsabkommen zwischen Ländern. Die Indikatoren konzentrieren sich gleichermaßen auf Maßnahmen und Strategien im Zusammenhang mit dem Engagement der Diasporamitglieder und den grenzüberschreitenden Geldtransfers von Migrantinnen und Migranten

Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen
Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen

Diese Dimension befasst sich mit der Art und dem Grad der Bereitschaft von Ländern, wenn sie mit Mobilitätsdimensionen von Krisen konfrontiert sind, die entweder mit Katastrophen, der Umwelt und/oder Konflikten zusammenhängen. Die Fragen werden verwendet, um die Prozesse für Staatsangehörige und Ausländer sowohl während als auch Katastrophen zu ermitteln, einschließlich der Frage, ob humanitäre Hilfe für Migrantinnen und Migranten genauso verfügbar ist wir für Bürgerinnen und Bürger. 

Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration
Sichere, geordnete und reguläre Migration

Diese Dimension analysiert den Ansatz der Länder zum Migrationsmanagement bezüglich Grenzkontroll- und Grenzschutzmaßnahmen, Zulassungsvoraussetzungen für Migranten, Vorbereitung und Flexibilität bei erheblichen und unerwarteten Wanderungsbewegungen sowie die Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und des Menschenschmuggels von Migrantinnen und Migranten. Es werden auch die Bemühungen und Anreize zur Unterstützung der Integration der zurückkehrenden Staatsbürgerinnen und -burger bewertet. 

Key findings
Introduction

This country Profile describes examples of well-developed areas of the Republic of Iraq’s (hereafter referred to as Iraq) migration governance structures and areas with potential for further development, as evaluated through the six domains of the Migration Governance Indicators (MGI). These address migrants’ rights, a “whole-of-government” approach, partnerships, socioeconomic well-being of migrants, the mobility dimensions of crises, and safe and orderly migration.

Click the icons on the wheel to explore the key findings.

The Migration Governance Indicators (MGI) initiative is a policy-benchmarking programme led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and implemented with research and analysis from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Funding is provided by IOM Member States. 

Key findings
Migrants' rights

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Migrants in Iraq, depending on their migratory status, have access to government-funded health-care services equal to that of nationals.
  • Iraq grants migrants with a regular status access to government-funded free education at primary, secondary and higher levels equal to that of nationals.
  • Under the Social Protection Law, migrants who reside in Iraq permanently, continuously and lawfully have access to social protection equal to that of nationals.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The Law on the Residence of Foreigners does not provide a path for foreign residents to obtain permanent residence permits in Iraq.
  • Migrants holding a work permit are not allowed to change jobs in the private or public sector unless both the new and former private sector employer approve the change.
Key findings
Whole of government approach

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Ministry of Migration and Displacement provides operational support and facilitates services  for internally displaced persons (IDPs), Iraqis returning from abroad, Iraqis who have lost their citizenships and left the country, refugees and asylum seekers, in coordination with relevant government institutions.
  • The Department of Migration Affairs provides legal support to Iraqis abroad whose asylum applications have been rejected or who are migrants with an irregular status abroad, among other duties.
  • The Higher Committee for the Relief and Support of the Displaced focuses on supporting and assisting IDPs, including on resettlement.

Areas with potential for further development:

  • The national census does not include questions specifically addressing migrants in Iraq. Nevertheless, it includes questions about place of birth as well as demographic information about Iraqis abroad.
Key findings
Partnerships

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Iraq is a member of several regional consultative processes (RCPs) on migration, including the Arab Regional Consultative Process on Migration and Refugees Affairs, which addresses concerns about diaspora engagement among others. 
  • Iraq signed a memorandum of understanding with Sri Lanka that provides a legal framework for Sri Lankan skilled workers and professionals to work in Iraq.
  • Germany and Iraq reached an agreement in 2018 to facilitate the return and reintegration of Iraqis whose asylum claims were rejected in Germany.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The Iraqi government does not formally engage with civil society, the private sector, social partners or members of diaspora and expatriate communities in agenda setting or in the implementation of migration-related issues.
Key findings
Well-being of migrants

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • The Labour Law prohibits forced labour and enables the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and workers’ associations to establish bilateral labour agreements for ethical recruitment of migrant workers.
  • The Act Promulgating the Labour Code allows migrants to maintain their residency and work permits if they change employers.
  • Iraq’s Labour Law promotes gender equality for workers in general, including migrant workers, by guaranteeing equal work opportunities and equal wages between men and women for the same type of work. 

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Iraq does not conduct a national assessment to assess labour market demand for immigrants or the effects of emigrants on the domestic labour market.
  • The Iraqi Government is not actively involved in promoting the creation of formal remittance schemes.
Key findings
Mobility dimensions of crises

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Iraq allows its nationals living abroad to register with their embassies and consulates on a voluntary basis so they can receive assistance in times of crisis. 
  • The National Development Plan 2018–2022 issued by the Ministry of Planning includes “recovery of communities affected by the displacement crisis” as one of its strategic objectives. 
  • The Real Estate Registration Law enables all foreigners who have left the country to reclaim their properties when they return to Iraq.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • The Iraqi Government does not have a formal strategy with specific measures to provide assistance to migrants, apart from refugees, during crisis and post-crisis phases in the country.
  • Iraq does not have a contingency plan to manage large-scale population movements during crises.
Key findings
Safe, orderly and regular migration

Migration Governance: examples of well-developed areas

  • Border staff in Iraq receive regular training on border security, human rights and document fraud detection, among others.
  • The Ministry of Migration and Displacement has policies aimed at attracting highly qualified Iraqi nationals who have migrated abroad, through customs allowances and other support.
  • Iraq’s Central Committee on Combating Human Trafficking coordinates efforts to tackle human trafficking and includes representatives from several ministries and bodies.

Areas with potential for further development: 

  • Iraq does not have procedures or policies to ensure the minimization of risks for migrants in transit or at the border.

2020 Juni

Migration Governance Profile: Republic of Iraq